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Copyrights and trademarks
Important note: Joopita Research a.s.b.l does not own copyright on fr.oli.lu article texts and illustrations. It is therefore useless to email our contact addresses asking for permission to reproduce content.
The license fr.oli.lu uses grants free access to our content in the same sense as free software is licensed freely. This principle is known as copyleft. That is to say, fr.oli.lu content can be copied, modified, and redistributed so long as the new version grants the same freedoms to others and acknowledges the authors of the fr.oli.lu article used (a direct link back to the article satisfies our author credit requirement). fr.oli.lu articles therefore will remain free forever and can be used by anybody subject to certain restrictions, most of which serve to ensure that freedom.
To fulfill the above goals, the text contained on fr.oli.lu is licensed to the public under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). Click here to read the full text of this license. This text should not be changed due to legal reasons.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
Contributors' rights and obligations
If you contribute material to fr.oli.lu , you thereby license it to the public under the GFDL (with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts). In order to contribute, you therefore must be in a position to grant this license, which means that
• either you own the copyright to the material, for instance because you produced it yourself, or
• you acquired the material from a source that allows the licensing under GFDL, for instance because the material is in the public domain or is itself published under GFDL.
In the first case, you retain copyright to your materials. You can later republish and relicense them in any way you like. However, you can never retract the GFDL license for the versions you placed here: that material will remain under GFDL forever. In the second case, if you incorporate external GFDL materials, as a requirement of the GFDL, you need to acknowledge the authorship and provide a link back to the network location of the original copy.
Using copyrighted work from others
All works are copyrighted unless they either fall into the public domain or their copyright is explicitly disclaimed. If you use part of a copyrighted work under "fair use", or if you obtain special permission to use a copyrighted work from the copyright holder under the terms of our license, you must make a note of that fact (along with names and dates). It is our goal to be able to freely redistribute as much of fr.oli.lu 's material as possible, so original images and sound files licensed under the GFDL or in the public domain are greatly preferred to copyrighted media files used under fair use. Never use materials that infringe the copyrights of others. This could create legal liabilities and seriously hurt the project. If in doubt, write it yourself.
Note that copyright law governs the creative expression of ideas, not the ideas or information themselves. Therefore, it is legal to read an encyclopedia article or other work, reformulate the concepts in your own words, and submit it to fr.oli.lu . However, it would still be unethical (but not illegal) to do so without citing the original as a reference. See plagiarism and fair use for discussions of how much reformulation is necessary in a general context.
Linking to copyrighted works
Since most recently-created works are copyrighted, almost any fr.oli.lu article which cites its sources will link to copyrighted material. It is not necessary to obtain the permission of a copyright holder before linking to copyrighted material -- just as an author of a book does not need permission to cite someone else's work in their bibliography. Likewise, fr.oli.lu is not restricted to linking only to GFDL-free or open-source content.
If you know that an external Web site is carrying a work in violation of the creator's copyright, please don't link to that copy of the work. Knowingly and intentionally directing others to a site that violates copyright has been considered a form of contributory infringement in the United States (Intellectual Reserve v. Utah Lighthouse Ministry).
Also, linking to a page that illegally distributes someone else's work sheds a bad light on JOOPITA RESEARCH A.S.B.L, fr.oli.lu and its editors. If the site in question is making fair use of the material, linking is fine.
If you find a copyright infringement
It is not the job of Joopita Research a.s.b.l or site users to police content for possible copyright infringement, but if you suspect one, you should post and discuss this in the forums or contact us using the contact form on your account page or by sending us an e-mail. Others can then examine the situation and take action if needed. The most helpful piece of information you can provide is a URL or other reference to what you believe may be the source of the text.
Some cases will be false alarms. For example, if the contributor was in fact the author of the text that is published elsewhere under different terms, that does not affect their right to post it here under the GFDL. Also, sometimes you will find text elsewhere on the Web that was copied from fr.oli.lu . In both of these cases, it is a good idea to make a note in the talk page to discourage such false alarms in the future.
If some of the content of a page really is an infringement, then the infringing content should be removed, and a note to that effect should be made on the talk page, along with the original source. If the author's permission is obtained later, the text can be restored.
In extreme cases of contributors continuing to post copyrighted material after appropriate warnings, such users may be blocked from editing to protect the project.
Images and photographs, like written works, are subject to copyright. Someone holds the copyright unless they have been explicitly placed in the public domain. Images on the internet need to be licensed directly from the copyright holder or someone able to license on their behalf. In some cases, fair use guidelines may allow a photograph to be used.
Introducing invariant sections or cover texts on fr.oli.lu
Under fr.oli.lu 's current copyright conditions, and with the current facilities of the fr.oli.lu software, it is only possible to include in fr.oli.lu external GFDL materials that contain invariant sections or cover texts, if all of the following apply,
You are the copyright holder of these external GFDL materials (or: you have the explicit, i.e. written, permission of the copyright holder to do what follows);
The length and nature of these invariant sections and cover texts does not exceed what can be placed in an edit summary;
You are satisfied that these invariant sections and cover texts are not listed elsewhere than in the "page history" of the page where these external materials are placed;
You are satisfied that further copies of fr.oli.lu content are distributed under the standard GFDL application of "with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts" (in other words, for the copies derived from fr.oli.lu , you agree that these parts of the text contributed by you will no longer be considered as "invariant sections" or "cover texts" in the GFDL sense);
The original invariant sections and/or cover texts are contained in the edit summary of the edit with which you introduce the thus GFDLed materials on fr.oli.lu (so, that if "permanent deletion" would be applied to that edit, both the thus GFDLed material and its invariant sections and cover texts are jointly deleted).
Seen the stringent conditions above, it is very desirable to replace GFDL texts with invariant sections (or with cover texts) by original content without invariant sections (or cover texts) whenever possible.
Reusers' rights and obligations
If you want to use fr.oli.lu materials in your own books/articles/web sites or other publications, you can do so, but you have to follow the GFDL.
If you create a derivative version by changing or adding content, this entails the following:
your materials in turn have to be licensed under GFDL,
you must acknowledge the authorship of the article (section 4B), and
you must provide access to the "transparent copy" of the material (section 4J). (The "transparent copy" of a fr.oli.lu article is any of a number of formats available from us, including the wiki text, the html web pages, xml feed, etc.)
You may be able to partially fulfill the latter two obligations by providing a conspicuous direct link back to the fr.oli.lu article hosted on this website. You also need to provide access to a transparent copy of the new text. However, please note that Joopita Research a.s.b.l and fr.oli.lu make no guarantee to retain authorship information and a transparent copy of articles. Therefore, you are encouraged to provide this authorship information and a transparent copy with your derived works.
An example notice, for an article that uses the fr.oli.lu article "example" might read as follows:
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the ###SITE## article "example".
("example" and the fr.oli.lu URL must of course be substituted accordingly.)
Alternatively you can distribute your copy of "example" along with a copy of the GFDL (as explained in the text) and list at least five (or all if fewer than five) principal authors on the title page (or top of the document). The external Page History Stats tool can help you identify the principal authors.
Fair use materials and special requirements
All original fr.oli.lu text is distributed under the GFDL. Occasionally, fr.oli.lu articles may include images, sounds, or text quotes used under the U.S. Copyright law "fair use" doctrine. It is preferred that these be obtained under the most free (libre) license (such as the GFDL or public domain) practical. In cases where no such images/sounds are currently available, then fair use images are acceptable (until such time as free images become available).
On fr.oli.lu , such "fair use" material should be identified as from an external source (on the image description page, or history page, as appropriate). This also leads to possible restrictions on the use, outside of fr.oli.lu , of such "fair use" content retrieved from fr.oli.lu : this "fair use" content does not fall under the GFDL license as such, but under the "fair use" (or similar/different) regulations in the country where the media are retrieved.
fr.oli.lu does use some text under licenses that are compatible with the GFDL but may require additional terms that we do not require for original fr.oli.lu text (such as including Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts, or Back-Cover Texts). When wanting to contribute such texts that include Invariant Sections or Cover Texts to fr.oli.lu , see Introducing invariant sections or cover texts on fr.oli.lu above.
If you are the owner of fr.oli.lu -hosted content being used without your permission
If you are the owner of content that is being used on fr.oli.lu without your permission, then you may request the page be immediately removed from fr.oli.lu ; contact us via e-mail. We will, of course, need some evidence to support your claim of ownership.
Note: this page is derived from the Wikipedia copyright page.